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Ancient Greek, Koine Greek in particular, is an essential language for any student of the New Testament. This is the language of the New Testament and many important works of the 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. This guide is intended to help students in the grueling process of the acquisition of the language and provide tools to better utilize this skill.
The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek
"The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek is the English translation of Franco Montanari’s Vocabolario della Lingua Greca. With an established reputation as the most important modern dictionary for Ancient Greek, it brings together 140,000 headwords taken from the literature, papyri, inscriptions and other sources of the archaic period up to the 6th Century CE, and occasionally beyond.The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek is an invaluable companion for the study of Classics and Ancient Greek, for beginning students and advanced scholars alike."
This database offers access to hundreds of Christian and non-Christian Greek and Latin sources. What makes this database unique is that it includes a parsing tool and dictionary to aid in translation. It also provides access to public domain English translations of the texts when available. It is an open access project, meaning that patrons and non-patrons have equal access to every part of the project.
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG)
This database is the Perseus Project on steroids. It gives access to every ancient Greek text available and is constantly updating. Though is not as user friendly as Perseus, it is well worth the time to learn how to navigate. Like Perseus, the TLG provides parsing and dictionary tools to aid in translation as well as English translations when available. For help with the TLG see the library's guide
This is a free online Greek/Latin dictionary but much more. It also lists the authors that use the word searched for the most and provides links to those works through the Perseus project.
The Codex Sinaiticus Project
This is a massive international project that has worked to digitize the entire Sinaiticus manuscript, often refered to as א. An excellent resource for anyone interested in textual criticism.
Lexicons (PHYSICAL COPIES ONLY)
Greek-English Lexicon (The Great Scott)
This is the standard classical Greek lexicon used by classicists. This is not the best lexicon for NT Greek but when translating anything written prior to the NT and the LXX this should be consulted. There are an abridged version of this lexicon referred to as
The Middle LIddell
A Patristic Greek Lexicon
This is a specialty Greek lexicon focused on the works after the NT. As a specialty dictionary, it will not have common words in it but words or definitions that are specific to the Patristic corpus.
The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek
This is the English translation of Franco Montanari’s
Vocabolario della Lingua Greca, based on the completely revised 3rd Italian edition published in 2013. This is the newest Greek lexicon published today and unless the Liddell lexicon is revised soon will probably take it's place as the standard.
Etymological Dictionary of Greek
Not a lexicon in the traditional sense, this immense work gives the etymological background of many important Greek words. An invaluable resource when deeply examining a specific Greek word in a given text.
Theological Dictionary of the New Testament
This massive work is the English translation of
Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament
. Entries for important words in the NT are extensive and deal with their "Classical" Greek and Hebrew backgrounds. Though the work is dated, this is still an excellent resource for biblical scholars. There is a one volume abridged version of the work
A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint
If you are focusing on the LXX this is an excellent specialized lexicon dealing specifically with the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. This is also a relatively new lexicon (2009) and thus will have had access to the most recent LXX scholarship.
Intermediate and Advanced Grammars
Smyth's Greek Grammar
This is the standard English grammar of the Greek language. It focuses more on Attic Greek but the majority of the grammatical rules are the same for Koine Greek. An online version can be found via archive.org
A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research by
Though dated, this is a very thorough grammar that focuses specifically on the NT. Unlike most linguistic grammar books, this is organized like a work of prose rather than a standard reference work with section numbers and subsections which can make it more difficult to browse. However this should not take away from the genius of the work. An online version can be found via archive.org
Grammar of Septuagint Greek
This is one of the few English grammars focusing exclusively on Septuagint Greek, though dated, this work is still important for students because of some of the unique aspects of this translation of the Hebrew Bible. A older edition can be found
Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament by
This is a specialty grammar focusing only on NT prepositions. This is an excellent guide for better understanding the different uses of Greek prepositions throughout the NT. As the title suggests, it is focused on exegesis and theology and not as much on lexicography and historical understanding of prepositions.
A Syntax of Septuagint Greek
The most recent grammar (2016) that focuses exclusively on the LXX. As the title suggests, the main focus of the grammar is the syntax but the first section of the work is entitled "Morphosyntax." This reference work is sure to become to the new standard in LXX studies.